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Sunday, 15 July 2012

Computer Virus prevention

Virus prevention

  • Virus protection should be up-to-date and latest and anti-virus should be upgraded on a regular basis.
  • Virus protection is to be used to automatically scan and fix an e-mail before it is opened.
  • Automatic downloads should not be permitted by the antivirus installed in the system when a website is accessed.
  • There should be controls which permit and allow only authorized personnel to writer or alter programs. All changes must be recorded and documented and senior manager should verify these changes.
  • Programs or disks should be accepted after checking them with the latest version of anti-virus. Antivirus should automatically scan any disk inserted into the computer. If a disk is lent to any person, it should be checked before it is used again.
  • Floppy disks should not be left in the disk drive for longer than necessary time,
  • Demos or software with doubtful origins should never be used.
  • System should not be booted with a disk in the disk drive unless it is a confirmed to be a system disk which is “Clean” and bootable.
  • Delete cookie files on a regular basis or select “do not accept cookies option” in browser preferences as cookies act as agents for Trojan horse  and virus transfer.

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Thursday, 12 July 2012

Potential Sources of Virus Infection

 A computer virus is a program which is of very small size with the capability of propagating from one machine to another disrupting the capability of the infected machine. There can be loss of key data and in some cases can result in system crash. There are many programs which can help in the removal of computer viruses.

 Potential sources of virus infection are:
  • E-mail attachments are that most common source of virus infections.
  • Viruses can infect when reading a web page. Virus can infect only when downloading a program or running it.
  • Viruses also come from downloading files, images, audios and videos from sources which are unknown or through opening of email attachments which are suspicious. There would not be computer infection with downloading of files. The file can infect only when installed or opened.
  • By using floppy disks containing virus.
  • Programmers who create them and propagate them via internet to bigger organizations and then develop anti-virus to the virus propagated. This is generally done with a view to earn money, by selling anti-virus to the organizations.
  • According to the latest report by CNN, plugging a new device to a user; computer and can cause digital infection. Companies which sell digital products at a very low price are mostly termed as source as per the report.
  • Virus can be  programmed into system by a disgruntled employee
  • Virus can also be programmed by “fun-loving” or irresponsible employee.

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Friday, 6 July 2012

Decision to use Sampling

According to normally accepted standards of auditing, an auditor need not examine each and every item of a large sized database. He can go for sampling, which saves considerable cost and time without sacrificing quality. Under sampling, an auditor establishes proper confidence limits and selects a sample, which can be a true representative of the entire population from which it is chosen. Sampling enables the auditor to express his opinion on the financial information without examining the entire evidence. But such sampling can be adopted for low risk-items forming large size population. In case of high risk items like large dollar value transactions, an auditor would prefer to examine all items of the entire population. Similar is the case with high risk items with certain attributes like overdue accounts receivable or slow moving inventory, where the auditor chooses to examine item by item of the population. If there is an opinion that there may be some approximation in audit opinion due to sampling, it is not totally correct. Even if one goes for 100% testing without any sampling, non-sampling errors cannot be avoided. In fact, many times sampling lessens the impact of non-sampling errors.

There are certain considerations to be followed in applying sampling techniques. Proper care should be exercised in sample selection, so that it is a true representative of the population from which it is selected. Otherwise it is not possible to ascribe its characteristics to the entire population. The sample selection should also be random so that the client does not manipulate the characteristics of the sample and thereby those of the population itself. Level of assurance that is confidence that the population will be sufficiently represented by the sample and the precision will influence the sample size. If there are any errors in the sample, they should not be brushed as one-time phenomena but should be accepted as being present in the entire population.

In between statistical and non-statistical or judgemental sampling, statistical sampling methods are considered superior because they are based on mathematical principles and are more objective. All sampling approaches have the risk of making incorrect projections. But statistical sampling enables the auditor to measure and reduce such risk. It also helps in reducing errors in projections due to non-sampling mistakes.

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Wednesday, 4 July 2012

Law Assignment Help Short Answer questions 2

1.          Andrew forged the signature of Baumann on a check and gave it to Callas in payment for merchandise.  Callas indorsed the check and delivered it to forgery was recognized.  Callas claimed that he was not liable to Davis because he had no knowledge of the forgery.  Explain whether Callas is correct?

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2. LeVoe wrote a check for $1,200 to the order of Henry Smith and delivered it to Smith in payment for a used car that Smith said had a rebuilt engine.  Smith indorsed the check and delivered it to Kraus, a holder in due course.  LeVoe stopped payment on the check when she discovered that the engine had not been rebuilt.  Must LeVoe pay the amount of the check to Kraus?  Explain.

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   3. A demand negotiable note for $500 issued by Sabin and given to Norm is altered to read $5,000 and subsequently presented for payment for payment by Bridget, a holder in due course.  Under what circumstances, if any, may Sabin be required to pay $5,000 to Bridget?

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4. Ten year old Felicity fell in love with a golden retriever puppy, which she saw in the window of Pet World.  She decided to use the money she had saved from her paper route to buy the dog and wrote a $300 check, payable to Pet World.  Does Pet World qualify as a holder in due course?  Why or Why not?
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Tuesday, 3 July 2012

Law Assignment Help Short Answer questions 1

1.         An envelope containing a $10.00 rebate check was placed in Hart's mailbox by mistake.  It was addressed to Rice, a former tenant and read, "Pay to the bearer or G Rice. $ 10.00".  Was Hart a holder of the check?  Why or why not
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2.      Discuss if the following instrument is negotiable?
“Ninety days after today I promise to pay Sarah J. two thousand dollars”.
Signed:  Peter K.

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3.   An instrument reads “January 15, 20--.  Pay to Jonathan Adams ten thousand dollars ($1,000,000) from account number AB607 at Big Bank, Memphis, Tennessee.  Signed:  Albert Nobel”.  Discuss if this instrument is negotiable?
Albert would have to pay only the original amount of the check ($10,000), unless it could be shown that he was negligent in writing it so that it could be easily altered.  The bank’s recourse would be against Jonathan for breach of this warranty.

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4.   Amanda purchased 1,000 cases of tuna at $10.00 per case from General Food paying with a promissory note promising to "pay $10.000 in ninety days to General Foods".  General Foods transfers the note "without recourse" to Acme Finance. Amanda does not pay the $ 10,000 note stating that the tuna was unfit to eat.  Discuss what right the parties have in this situation?

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5.   Sarah gives a negotiable note for $5,000 to Roofing Contractor.  Roofing cleverly alters the note to $7,000 and negotiates the note to Bigger Bank for consideration.  When this alteration is discovered, discuss what recourse Bigger Bank will have against Sarah and roofing?

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