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Wednesday, 31 August 2011

Epithelial Tissue & functions, types of epithelia in digestive tract

Epithelial Tissue
Epithelium is an animal tissue and is one of the four basic types of tissues in animal. These tissues cover the structures in the whole body and line cavities. They also form different types of glands. Selective absorption, secretion , transport across cells, protection and detecting sensation are its functions. A special category of this epithelial tissue is epidermis. The epithelial tissue is located above the connective tissue. These two tissues are divided by basement membrane. Epithelial tissue consists of cells which are linked by desmosomes and tight junctions. This tissue has cells that are clustered tightly.  This tissue is avascular which implies that it should get nourishment through the diffusion of the substances from the connective tissue that is underlying via basement membrane.

Types of Epithelia in Digestive tract
Epithelium lines up the digestive tube. The epithelium is continuous at skin located at mouth as well as anus. The nature of epithelium changes with body parts. In some parts it works as protective layer and in some other parts it performs the role of absorption. Mucus secretions by individual glands or cells provide protection to the epithelial membranes. The process of digestion which changes the form of food to subtler substances that can be assimilated by the body is done by glands which are located inside the tract as well as its outside.
Suitability of transitional epithelium to urinary tract and bladder
Transitional epithelium is a tissue that is stratified. In this tissue the cells will be fairly round while the organ that this tissue lines up is not stretched out. With the stretching of tissue, the cells become flat especially the ones which are on the surface. This stretching makes the organs that are lined up with this tissue(transitional epithelium) to alter shape with damaging or affecting the epithelial lining. For this reason, transitional epithelium is well-suited to line urinary tract as well as the bladder.
Exocrine and Endocrine glandular epithelium
Endocrine glands do not have duct system while in exocrine glands, ducts release the products. In endocrine glands, secretions move into vascular system and are directed into the basal side while in exocrine glands, the secretions move from the ducts to the environment outside. In these glands, the secretions will be released to the surface of the apical cell.
Exocrine glands are the only glands which are related to the term “glandular epithelium”. These glands are classified basing on morphological characteristics.

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Superordinate Goals and Manager's Role in managing resistance to change

                                       1. Superordinate Goals
Superordinate goals in psychology are such goals which can be achieved through cooperation and coordination of a large number of individuals or groups.. The goals are, usually so large that a particular group from within a larger group or congregation cannot achieve it even if they so desire.

Superordinate goal is a concept pioneered by Muzafer Sherif(as in Granberg & Sarup,1992), a noted Turkish-American founder of Social Psychology, who through her ‘Robbers Cave Experiments’ laid the foundation for this concept of Superordinate goal.

            Organisations usually believe that organizational goals can be achieved by allotting individual goals to different persons or teams or groups. Such individuals or teams or groups try to steal march over one another because human nature always tries to corner glory and establish superiority over the peers (Beal, Cohen, Burke & McLendon, 2003). But when the goal is superordinate, the individuals or smaller groups and teams come to a reconciliation that unless all of them put their shoulder to the wheel, the goal cannot be achieved. They put aside all their differences and personal ambitions and cooperate with one another and complement the work of one another and thereby achieve the superordinate goal, which may ultimately lead to the achievement of organizational goal.

2. Manager’s role in managing resistance to change
Whenever there is an introduction of an organizational change, one comes across resistance from employees against such change. This is because people are usually afraid of the unknown and are comfortable with the statusquo(Axelrod,2000). The responsibility of the manager in case of such a resistance to change lies in proactively identifying the nature of the resistance and where it is coming from. To be effective in managing the resistance, managers should know how to (1) identifying the main causes of the resistance and (2) engage the employees to overcome the resistance (Schiesser, 2002).

To identify the root cause, managers can take help of ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement) model. When once the root cause is identified, there are number of tools with which managers can counter the resistance and facilitate smooth change (Schiesser, 2002).  

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Sunday, 21 August 2011

Types of Cell Reproduction, Mitosis and Result from Uncontrolled Mitosis

There are 2 types of cell reproduction-mitosis and meiosis. These reproduction processes result in the creation of 2 different cell types. In mitosis, a cell that nearly exact in features to the original cell is created. By this process somatic cells or body cells are created. Meiosis is different from this in that sex cells or germ cells are produced. Certain single-celled organisms and some classes of bacteria make use of mitosis for reproduction of cells. Meiosis and mitosis differ in the same way as sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction. Not all organisms reproduce asexually. In humans and certain other organisms which sexually reproduce, meiosis takes into account the genetic contribution of the two cells combining.

Mitosis: The cell reproduction of body cells or somatic cells is termed as ‘mitosis’. In other words the process of cell division that generates new cells for growth, replacement of aged cells and repair of cells is termed as ‘mitosis’. In mitosis, a body cell will be divided into two new cells which are having identical characteristics to the original cell. There are six phases in the process of mitosis and these take place in time span of 0.5 to 1.5 hours depending on the type of tissue that is being duplicated.
Uncontrolled Mitosis: Uncontrolled mitosis otherwise known as hyperplasia occurs when body responds to stimulus or physiological change. Due to this tumors are developed or organs are enlarged. In the event of development of cancer, a person will have dysplasia that is change of cells which are immature from one form to another and this develops into cancerous cells(neoplasia).Uncontrolled mitosis relates more to the spread of the disease of cancer than being a reason for its occurrence, Due to this cancer spreads through lymph and blood.
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Thursday, 18 August 2011

Managing Information Technology in a Global Economy

Information Technology has revolutionized human life totally. While discovery of Electron was considered as the most important contributor to revolutionary changes in human life in the last millennium, Information Technology has all the attributes of second most important contributor to human race in this millennium.
Economy is such an all-enveloping concept that it cannot be discussed in isolation. There is nothing in this world which does not have an impact on Economy. With the advent of Information Technology and its tremendous impact on Global Economy, the relationship between the two assumes interesting dimensions. As mentioned earlier, the discussion on the topic invariably leads to the impact of Information Technology on various fields, which , in turn, have metamorphosed  the nature and ambience of the Global Economy.
There is no facet of human endeavor, which is not impacted by Information Technology in the modern world. Science, technology, business, industry, education, medicine, transportation, communication, cultural interaction and even human relations-name any field- Information Technology has its impact imprinted on the changes and developments in that field. Information Technology has brought in revolutionary changes in these fields and made them all global. Information Technology erased the physical distances between places and converted the world into a global village. One can daresay that Global Economy is in its present position because of singular contribution from Information Technology. “Managing Information Technology in a Global Economy” is nothing but a study of  “Managing Information Technology” in contributory fields like Science, technology, business, industry, education, medicine, transportation, communication and many other areas.

To explain in a greater detail, business now is not localised to any particular place or a country. People from one country are comfortably shopping in other countries for their requirements via the internet. Raw materials and machinery required for the industry now need not be looked for only in the nearby places but can be purchased from any place in the world because of rapid changes in transportation and communication through information technology .These facilities have resulted in bringing down the cost of production of goods as a result of which the demand for goods is likely to spurt. Information technology has enabled educational institutions to transcend physical distances and spread their wings far and wide throughout the globe. This development has facilitated free movement of students throughout the world as a result of which there are many economic benefits. Similar is the case with medicine as a result of which pharmaceutical industry is reaping benefits contributing the growth of global economy.
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Basic functions of a cell

Basic functions of cell include conversion of energy, reproduction and transport of molecules.
Energy Conversion: Energy is obtained in cell through the process of oxidation. Cellular respiration results in oxidation of food materials. For the cells of living organisms like certain bacteria, animals and some protests, carbohydrates are oxidized as taken from the environment of the organism. Few other organisms like plants, algae and bacteria prepare carbohydrates by photosynthesis and oxidize them to get energy.
After other foods and carbohydrates are oxidized, the chemical energy gets locked into a chemical structure called ATP (Adinosine Triphosphate).The ATP is utilized by the cell by the process which requires energy and the chemical energy is released by the breaking of ATP. The cells will then replenish ATP through the process of oxidation of food stuff.
Reproduction of Cells: Majority of human cells are replaced are reproduced frequently and replaced during an individual’s life. The process differs with the type of cell. Body cells or somatic cells are duplicated by mitosis. Sex cells like ova and sperms are produced by meiosis.
Molecule Transport in Cells: There are two prime categories of transport of molecules in cells-active transport and passive transport. Macromolecules like polysaccharides, proteins and polynucleotides rely on active transport. There are two categories in active transport process- endocytosis and exocytosis. For smaller molecules like carbondioxide , ethanol and oxygen, molecules easily cross through the membrane through diffusion across a concentration gradient or passive transport.
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Differences between fibrous connective tissue and supporting connective tissue

Fibrous Connective Tissue or FCT is a connective tissue with high tensile strength. This tissue is made up of elastic and collagenous fibers. Tendons and ligaments are formed from those tissues. Most of these tissues do not have living cells and consist primarily of proteins, polysaccharides and water. These tissues are located close to Muller’s muscle.
Supporting Connective Tissues: Bone and cartilage are the tissues that make a strong framework that supports the body. In these tissues, here are many fibers forming the matrix and in a few cases, there are deposits of calcium salts which are insoluble. Cartilages are of three types: Hyaline Cartilage, Elastic Cartilage and Fibrocartilage.
The common type of supporting connective tissue is hyaline cartilage which connects the ribs to the sternum. This cartilage supports the respiratory tract’s conducting pathways and covers the bones’ surfaces within the joints. The next category that is elastic cartilage has many elastic fibers making it flexible and very resilient. The epiglottis, the nose’s tip and pinna which is the ear’s external flap are supported by elastic cartilage. The third type that is fibrocartilage has many collagen fibers making it very durable and resistive to shocks. This tissue prevents damage from contact between bone to bone.  This tissue is located in between bones in the pelvis region and also around it. It is also located in some tendons and joints.

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Main functions of Connective Tissue

Connective tissue provides structural support to the various organs and tissues of the body. This function is important to maintain the form of organs, tissues and organs. These tissues serve nutritive role. All these metabolites which are in blood pass move from capillary beds. They then move from neighbouring connective tissue to tissues and cells.In a similar way, waste metabolites from tissues and cells move through the connective tissue which is loose through diffusion before entering back to blood capillaries.

The blood-forming tissues or tissues that are hematopoietic are a more specialized form of the connective tissue. These tissues include the bone marrow or myeloid tissue and the lymphoid tissue. The lining of lymphatic vessels and blood vessels are also specialized connective tissues. Different forms of the connective tissue play different roles in body’s protection mechanism. These tissues also play role in the immune and vascular systems.

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Monday, 15 August 2011

Security Policy Framework and SLAs (Service Level Agreements)

In the present day business environment, full of dynamic and distributed markets, services are delivered through information and communication technologies. Gone are the days when security means providing security guards at the entry points to regulate the entry and exit and measures to safeguard against theft. The need of the hour is designing a security policy that takes care of the pitfalls in e-service environments.
Security Policy Framework
For formulating an effective security policy framework the following specifics should be borne in mind.               
Ø      As many legal and technical considerations are linked to security policy framework, the policy should be finalized in consultation with them.
Ø      Suitable and regular trade secret audit arrangements should be provided for enabling to fine tune our protection systems and make them suitable for the dynamic business environment.
Ø      It should provide for obtaining non-disclosure, non-compete and confidentiality clauses in employment contract. The framework should also provide for obtaining such agreements from vendors, contractors, temporary staff and consultants.                                          
Ø      The policy should provide for legal remedies for any willful attempt to steal or have access to trade secrets or intellectual resources.
The policy should provide for continuous education to employees regarding protecting confidential information illustrating with specific examples of workplace environment.
Ø      The policy should provide for physical access to documents containing important information to key personnel only under strict and consistent rules.
Ø      If it is a computerized work environment, the policy should evolve a procedure for making only that information available to an employee as needed by him and nothing more. The policy should provide for all necessary measures against acts of omission and commission on the part of the employees, who have access to important information.

Service Level Agreements
 Service level agreements no doubt provide a legal recourse in case of any untoward happening. Actually in many companies these service level agreements are taken as a matter of routine from the employees and others without their knowing the contents therein. Execution of service level agreements along with proper education of employees and continuous monitoring and auditing of their adherence will be more useful.

CSO is the chief security officer. He is the company’s top executive who is responsible for security in the company. He reports to the CEO of the company.
CSO’s Role
The CSO is responsible for all security functions and related issues in the company. At the same time, he must be aware of the legislations that have impact on the security of the company. He is responsible for the physical security protection and privacy of the company and its employees. The CSO coordinates security efforts across the enterprise. For this purpose he works closely with the chief information officer.
                                                              Technology bridging gap
The action items will bridge the gap between business and technology: IDENTIFY,QUANTIFY,   COMMUNICATE, MEASURE, STANDARDS, CROSS-TRAIN, INCLUDE, BILINGUAL, ASK, CROSS THE BRIDGE. These guidelines are not technological   changes or business changes. They are changes in attitude and perception, which are often the hardest to change. By implementing these guidelines, you can be on the way to bridge the gap between technology and business. Business managers and IT both have the same goals in the business, just different tool sets. It is possible to build something with one or the other but the best solutions use both tools.

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Chemistry Assignment Help Questions and Answers part4

1. Calculate the pH of a solution made by mixing 100.0 mL of 0.300 M NH3 with 100.0 mL of 0.100 M HCI. (Kbfor NH3 is 1.8 x 10^-5).
A) 9.56       B) 10.6 C) 4.44 D) 3.40 E) none of these

2. When a stable diatomic molecule spontaneously forms from its atoms, what are the signs of 


A) -  -   -     

B) +     +       +
C)-   +   +
D)-    -   +
E) +   -    -

3. At o-c, the ion-product constant of water, Kw' is 1.2 x to-15. The pH of pure water at O°C is: A) 7.00      B)7.46      C) 6.88 D) 7.56 E) none of these

4. The pH ofa 0.150M solution of a weak base is 10.98. Calculate the pH of a 0.0400 M
solution of the base. 
A) 11.5 B) 11.2 C) 10.5     D) 10.7      E) none of these

 is for exothermic reactions and for endothermic reactions.

A)Cannot tell    B ) favorable, unfavorable C) unfavorable, unfavorable D) favorable, favorable E) unfao

.Use the following to answer question 6:

A solution containing 10. mmol of C032- and 5.0 mmol of HC03 - is titrated with 1.0 MHCI.
6. What total volume ofHCI must be added to reach the second equivalence point? 
A) 30. mL B) 10. ml, C)20. mL D) 5.0 mL E) 25 mL

7. Which of the following salts shows the lowest solubility in water?
 (K values:SDAg2S = 1.6 x 10-49; Bi2S3 = 1.0 x 10-72; HgS = 1.6 x 10-54; Mg(OH)2 = 8.9 x 10-12;
MnS = 2.3 x10-13)
A) Bi2S3
B) Ag2S
C) Mg(OH)2
D) MnS
E) HgS

8. Which of the following statements is (are) always true?
I. In order for a process to be spontaneous, the entropy of the universe
must increase.
II. A system cannot have both energy disorder and positional disorder.
ill, DSuniv =T
IV. SO is zero for elements in their standard states.
A) I
C) I. ill, IV
E) I, IV

Use the following to answer question 9:

The enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol is 38.7 kJ/mol  at its boiling point (78°C).
9. Calculate the value of M when 1.00 mole of ethanol is vaporized at 78.0°C and 1.00 atm.
 A) -110. JlKmol    B) -496 JIK mol C) 110. JIK mol D) 496 JIK mol E) 0

10. A 0.1O-mol sample of a diprotic acid, ~A, is dissolved in 250 mL of water. The Kal of this acid is 1.0 x 10-5and Ka2 is 1.0 x 10-10• Calculate the concentration of A2- in this solution.
 A) 0.40 M B) 1.0 x 10-5 M C)1.0 x 10-10 M D) 2.0 x 10-3 M E) 4.0 x 10-6 M

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Sunday, 14 August 2011

Transforming and Expanding the Sentence, Nominals, Adverbials, and Adjectivals Part I

Directions: In a separate Word document, identify the adverbials in the following sentences.

Example:My roommate went to the store to get some snacks
                                    Prep-adv          inf-adv

  1. By the end of the second half, the playoff game had already become boring.
       prep-adv                                                                ord-adv             ord-adv

  1. When the fall foliage shows its colors in New Hampshire, thousands of tourists go there
           adverbial clause                                                                                                    adv
       to enjoy nature’s astonishing display.

  1. On Halloween night, the neighborhood children rang every doorbell on the block to 
      adv phrase                                                                                              adv phrase
            fill their goodie bags.

  1. The recent crisis in mortgage foreclosures may have occurred because most home loans these days pass through a nationwide chain of brokers, lender, and investors.
       adv-phrasee            adv clause

  1. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, almost 70%  of
                                       adv phrase

     crashes and 55% of near crashes involve some form of driver inattention.

  1. When Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans in 2005, many sections of the city were
                        adv clause

     completely wiped out.
        adv                    adv

  1. The myth of the “sugar high” may finally be laid to rest by a new scientific study,
adv                 inf-adv
according to a report in the Arizona Republic.
adv phrase

  1. “Cowards die many times before their death.” (Shakespeare)
                                                  adv phrase

  1. “Be silent always when you doubt your sense.” (Alexander Pope)
                                        adv clause

  1. Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.”
(Winston Churchill)                adv phrase                                      adv              adv           

Transforming and Expanding the Sentence, Nominals, Adverbials, and Adjectivals  Part II available at

Transforming and Expanding the Sentence, Nominals, Adverbials, and Adjectivals  Part III
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Thursday, 11 August 2011

Chemistry Assignment Help Questions and Answers part1

Select the best answer in the following

Use the following to answer question 1:

The solubility of silver phosphate (Agl04) at 25°C is 1.6 ~ 10-5 mol/L.

1. Determine the concentration of the Ag+ ion in a saturated solution.
 A) 7.6 x 10-5 M   B) 6.4 x 10-5 M   C) 1.6 x 10-5 M   D) 3.2 x 10-5 M   E) 4.8 x 10-5 M

2. Which statement below is not upheld by the second law of thermodynamics?
A) A machine is never 100%efficient.
B) Machines always waste some energy.
C) The change of entropy of the universe is always positive.
D) The entropy of a perfect crystal at 0 K is zero.
E) All of these

3. The pH in a solution H2A of 1.0 M (Ka1= 1.0 x 10-6; Ka2 = 1.0 x 10-1°) is:
 A) 6.00    (B) 3.00   (C) 7.00    D) 8.00    E) none of these

4. Assume that the enthalpy of fusion of ice is 6020 J/mol and does not vary appreciably over the temperature range 270-290 K. If one mole of ice at O°C is melted by heat supplied from surroundings at 280 K, what is the entropy change in the surroundings, in JIK?

 A) +22.0    B) -21.5      C) -22.0     D) 0.0    ) +21.5

Use the following to answer questions 5-7:

Determine whether the following oxides produce an acidic, basic, or neutral solution when dissolved in water:

5. MgO     
6. Na2O     
7. P4O10   

Use the following to answer question 8:
See the following reaction at constant 25°C and 1 atm.
2Fe(s) + (3/2) O2 (g) + 3H20(l) ~ 2Fe (OH)3(s)     DeltaH = kJ/mol
Substance         SO (J/mol K)
 Fe (OH)3(s)       107
Fe(s)                    27
O2 (g)               205
H20 (l)                70

9. One milliliter (1.00 mL) of acid taken from a lead storage battery is pipetted into a flask. Water and phenolphthalein indicator are added, and the solution is titrated with 0.50 M NaOH until a pink color appears;12.0 mL are required.
 The number of grams ofH2SO 4 (formula weight = 98) present in one liter of the battery acid is (to within 5%)
A) 750     B) 240      C) 290       D) 480       E) 580

10. Calculate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of 1.0 M ethylamine, C2H5NH2 by 1.0 M per chloric acid, HCIO4' (pKb for C2H5NH2 = 3.25)

A) 5.38   B) 5.53   C) 2.09   D) 2.24    E) 6.05

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