## Thursday, 17 November 2011

### Role of equations and inequalities in helping a business maximize profit or minimize costs

Equations and inequalities are used in optimization problems in business. If quantities like profit relating to a business is subject to certain constraints and if the constraint conditions and the quantities like profit are linear, linear programming can be used to solve the problems. Companies as well as industries can use this method of solving business situations for finding optimal solutions for the problems of business. This is predominantly used in operations research to provide the best solutions taking into consideration all the constraints of the business. Constraints is another name given to limitations on the quantity of production and the time related to producing the item.

So first equations and inequalities are framed and graphed. Then they are solved by linear programming methods. Prediction of economic growth, solutions for strategic games, factory manufacturing, resources conservation, diets’ designing, and systems of transportation are some of the few industries which employ these. This method can be used by even farmers to improve their produce. Overall designing of equations and inequalities makes the world more efficient economically.

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.

Avail Economics Assignment Help at http://goo.gl/gOzVj from management and economics experts at  affordable prices.

### Spherical Geometry

Prove the statement” there exists a triangle with a sum of angles greater than 180 degrees" is true in spherical geometry.

Let us take Reimann geometry or Spherical geometry.Let a triangle be drawn on a sphere’s surface. All the lines can be made ‘straight’ as all the angles are greater than 180.

Let both the poles be marked on the sphere that is North pole and South pole. Let four points be marked equidistantly around the equator. Let the North pole be joined to the two adjacent points on the Equator and then if these two points are joined together to each other, there are in fact three straight lines on the sphere but each of the angles if 90 degrees. And the sum of the angles of this triangle formed is 270 degrees.

Again there are two types of spherical triangles, one is right spherical triangle which has 1 angle compulsorily of 90 degrees. This type of triangle has more chances to have the sum of all angles(interior) to be less than 180 degrees.The other type of right triangle is oblique spherical triangle where the interiors angles sum is greater than 180 degrees.

==========================================
Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.

Avail Mathematics Assignment Help at http://goo.gl/L2PaM from mathematics experts at  affordable prices.

### Using Genetic Engineering to cure Human Diseases and Clone Human Body Parts

Using Genetic Engineering to cure Human Diseases
Using genetic engineering to cure human diseases is a virtual boon to mankind. Gene therapy which is the offspring of genetic engineering involves treatment of diseases by repair or replacement of defective genes or introduction of therapeutic genes to fight the disease. As a result of this therapy many autoimmune diseases as well as cardiac problems could be effectively treated. Some rare diseases like ALS, Huntington’s disease and cystic fibrosis which are due to defective genes could be cured by gene therapy. Gene therapy also enables pregnant women to get their fetuses screened for finding out any genetic defects. Genetic Engineering for curing of human diseases is highly desirable (“What are the benefits of human genetic engineering?”, 2011).

Genetic Engineering to Clone Human Body Parts
Use of geneticengineering to clone human parts for transplant is going to totally revolutionise medicine. The technology enables us to produce identical cells for the purpose of regenerative medicine. Organs and tissues required for transplantation. Areas such as treatment of burns and cosmetic and reconstructive surgery are going to immensely benefit, because of this technology (Eigen, 2010).
It is a common spectacle that many patients die for want of replacement of damaged parts. Such instances can be avoided by use by cloning for producing human parts for transplant (Eigen, 2010).

References
Eigen,D.L. (2010). "Scriptamus, Human Clones May Be Among Us Now! Who Is Ready?". Retrieved January 14,2011from  http://scriptamus.wordpress.com/2010/01/03/human-clones-may-be-among-us-now-who-is-ready

What are the benefits of human genetic engineering?”(2011). AllAboutPopularIssues.org. Retrieved January 14,2011 from  http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/benefits-of-human-genetic-engineering-faq.htm.

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.
Avail Medical Science Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/9wa2M from medical experts at  affordable prices.
Avail Nursing Assignment Help at http://goo.gl/rr1zM  from medical experts at  affordable
prices.

### Using Genetic Engineering to Develop Better Farm Animals

Using Genetic Engineering to Develop Better Farm Animals

The processes using genetic engineering to develop better farm animals lead  to producing transgenic animals , which acquire better resistance to disease, ability to grow faster, ability to turnout better work and better reproductive capacity. Thus for example transgenic sheep can be developed for yielding better wool and transgenic cows to yield more milk and better meat. It is also possible that the animals can be made to be non-sentient in that they don’t feel and suffer from pain(Perzigian,2003).
While all the above seem desirable, use of genetic engineering for developing farm animals is likely to infuse a sense of indifference towards many species which are not directly useful to mankind. Their existence and survival in nature is however necessary for maintaining the biodiversity required for ecological balance. Use of too much of genetic engineering for animal farming should not be allowed to disturb ecological balance(Perzigian,2003).
Reference
Perzigian,B.A.(2003).Genetic Engineering and Animals: A Short Summary of the Legal Terrain and Ethical Implications”, Animal Legal and Historical Center, Michigan State University--Detroit College of Law. Retrieved January 14, 2011 from

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.
Avail Medical Science Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/9wa2M from medical experts at  affordable prices.

### Views on Genetically Modified Plants

Genetically Modified Plants
The genetically modified plants are those whose DNA is changed using some techniques from genetic engineering. By using such techniques a new quality is introduced into those plants which enable them to be sturdier and withstand diseases and pests, which normal plants cannot withstand (Bock, 2010).
Even though there is a stubborn resistance to the introduction of genetically modified plants in a number of countries, their utility cannot be totally written off. Due to acute pollution and global warming, there are many unpredictable changes in climate, which normal and natural plants are not able to withstand. Because of such climatic changes new types of pests are targeting plant life, causing huge destruction. Genetic changes in plants enable them to be resistant to diseases and pests and also ensure longer shelf life(Bock,2010).
Human needs are increasing day by day particularly on the food front. It is becoming more and more difficult to get the necessary crop yields from natural plants. Genetically modified plants can offer solution to this problem. However care should be taken that these genetically modified plants do not give rise to new environmental problems(Bock,2010).
Reference
Bock, R. (2010). "The give-and-take of DNA: horizontal gene transfer in plants". Trends in plant science, 15 (1): 11–22. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2009.10.001. PMID 19910236.

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.
Avail Medical Science Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/9wa2M from medical experts at  affordable prices.

## Tuesday, 15 November 2011

### Reliability and Stability of Dutch version of Roland -Morris Disability Questionnaire (RM-24) for CLBP patients

Brouwer et al.(2004) have conducted study to analyse the reliability of the test or retest of Dutch version of RMDQ in a sample size of  30 CLBP patients. The RMDQ of the Dutch language version displayed good reliability having an ICC (Interclass Correlation Coefficient) of 0.91( acceptable range of reliability has ICC greater than or equal to 0.75). This RMDQ of Dutch language version proves to be reliable in measuring the functional status in patients with CLBP. But the natural variation should be taken into consideration when this RMDQ is used clinically.

Brouwer et al.(2004) have conducted study to analyse the stability of the test or retest of Dutch version of RMDQ in a sample size of 30 patients suffering from CLBP (Chronic Low Back Pain). While calculating the agreement limits for quantifying the stability, a higher quantity of natural variation was found which is of  ± 5.4 and this is relative to the range of total score which is in between 0-24.

Reference:
Brouwer,S Kuijer1,W , Dijkstra PU, GÃ¶eken LNH ,  GroothoffJW and  Geertzen JHB(2004).Reliability and stability of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire: intra class correlation and limits of agreement, Disabil Rehabil.,February,Vol. 26, No. 3 , pp.162-5.

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.
Avail Medical Science Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/9wa2M from medical experts at  affordable prices.
Avail Nursing Assignment Help at http://goo.gl/rr1zM  from medical experts at  affordable
prices.

### Sensitivity and Specificity of Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire(RM-24) by Osteloa et al. (2004)

Osteloa etal. (2004)  studied the properties of measurement of questionnaire basing on population samples on which there will be usage of the measurements. The study’s purpose is to establish is to establish an evidence which is based on the recommendation of the use of questionnaires regarding functional use in the patients after a lumbar disc surgery by the direct comparison of responsiveness and reproducibility. There was assessment of the properties of measurement of 6 status questionnaires of functional nature .In this study, (1) RDQ-24(Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire), (2.) MRDQ(Modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire), (3.) RM-18 or short Roland-Morris Disability (4.) Physical functioning Scale , (5.)SF-36 Role Limitations and main complaint (MC) subjects who still suffered from complaints for 6 weeks after the  lumbar disc surgery. The questionnaires were completed before and 3 months of treatment. Suggestions were made for the usage of RDQ-24 in popele post-surgery.It was found that the optimal cut-off point for the RDQ-24 minimizing the classification error was found to be 3.5 with 88.2% as specificity.

In the studies by Osteloa et al. (2004) ,regarding measurement properties of six types of questionnaires which are based on population samples, the sensitivity for RDQ-24 was found to be 94.6%.

Reference
Osteloa,R.W.J.G., Veta,H.C.W., Knola,D.L. & van den Brandtb,P.A.(2004).24-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire was preferred out of six functional status questionnaires for post-lumbar disc surgery.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology,Elsevier, vol.57,pp.268–276.

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.
Avail Medical Science Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/9wa2M from medical experts at  affordable prices.
Avail Nursing Assignment Help at http://goo.gl/rr1zM  from medical experts at  affordable
prices.

## Monday, 14 November 2011

### Preparing journal entry for recording performance of services (Accounting assignment Help)

Robin Corporation accepted credit cards for \$34,200 of services performed in October 2011.The credit card company charged a 3% service fee and paid Robin as soon as it received the credit card receipts. a) Prepare the general journal entry to record performance of the services. b) Prepare the general journal entry for collection of the receivable from the credit card company.

 Date Account title and description Ref Debit Credit October 2011 Accounts receivable - Card issuer    Dr    To sales -   services rendered \$34200 \$34200 Oct 2011 Cash A/C              DrCredit card expense a/c          Dr(for commission of 3% on \$ 34200 charged by bank )To Accounts receivable-      card issuer \$34174 \$1026 \$34200

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail to contact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.

Avail Accounts Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/eNe4R from accounting experts.

### Tangible and Intangible Assets & Advantages of establishing a line of credit

Tangible and Intangible Assets
Tangible assets are the economic resources of a firm, whose existence can be physically felt or perceived.
Examples: Inventory, land and buildings and plant and machinery.
Intangible assets are non physical economic resources and rights, which carry a value with them and confer some advantage on the firm in the market place.
In accounting, it is only the tangible assets that are found in the balance sheet. Intangible assets do not find a place in the balance sheet of the firm. But while calculating the value of the firm in the market, the intangible assts are also taken into account.
Advantages of establishing a line of credit
A line of credit is a commitment from the bank to lend the firm up to a certain amount to meet various financial needs. It provides an opportunity for the firm to establish access to credit even before the exact expenditure decisions are finalized. It is more flexible than a loan, which makes finance available for a specific purpose. It can be used for different purposes. It need not be drawn at a time like a loan, but can be used as and when the need arises. The line of credit is thus the most flexible and comfortable financing arrangement for a firm to take care of its present and future needs as well as contingencies.
Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail to contact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.

Avail Accounts Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/eNe4R from accounting experts.

### Reliability and Validity of Brazilian-Portuguese version of Roland-Morris questionnaire(RM-24) for CLBP patients

Nasbaum et al. (2001) proposed a study on RM questionnaire which is to be translated into the Brazilian-Portuguese in a sample size of 30 CLBP patients. After the original version was translated to Brazilian-Portuguese, the discrepancies after being taken to discussion were solved by a panel of three rheumatologists to establish the final version of Brazilian RM questionnaire or the Brazil-RM. In the session for pretesting, the patient understood all the questions. The average time for administration of questionnaire was 4 min and 53s. The ICC and SCC (SpearmanCorrelation Coefficient) were 0.94 and 0.88(P<0.01) respectively for the reliability of the test / retest and 0.95 and 0.86(P<0.01) correspondingly for the reliability of interobserver. It can be concluded that there was successful translation of Brazil-RM and it was adapted for application to the patients in Brazil with reliability of satisfactory level.

The validation of Brazilian-Portuguese RM questionnaire by Nasbaum et al. (2001) was done after translating and adapting it  on 30 patients suffering from CLBP who are consecutively selected from outpatient clinic for disorders related to spine. The validity of the cross-sectional construct was calculated by the SCC. The coefficient of correlation was 0.80(P<0.01) between the score of Brazil –RM and PS score and 0.79(P<0.01) between Brazil-RM score and VAS. It can be concluded that there was successful translation of Brazil-RM and it was adapted for application to the patients in Brazil with validity of cross-sectional construct.

# Nusbaum L, Natour J, Ferraz MB, Goldenberg J.( 2001), Translation, adaptation and validation of the Roland-Morris questionnaire--Brazil Roland-Morris . Braz J Med Biol Res. Feb, Vol.34, no.2, pp.203-10.

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.
Avail Medical Science Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/9wa2M from medical experts at  affordable prices.
Avail Nursing Assignment Help at http://goo.gl/rr1zM  from medical experts at  affordable
prices.

### Translations and Modifications of the Roland- Morris Disability Questionnaire(RM-24)Tool

The Roland- Morris Disability Questionnaire(RM-24) was initially  available in 12 languages but now it is available in 36 languages. The RMDQ translations can also be used without the permission from either the authors or from journal Spine. If any other translations are done, they may be sent to any author (MR) with details of the process of translation, so that these translations can be included in the content of Spine website. Among the modifications proposed for RMDQ by various researchers, one modification was to change the questionnaire’s wording that is to change each statement’s terminal phrase from “ because of my back” to “because of my back or leg problem”. This change is more suited for sciatica patients and the modifications are very acceptable (Patrick etal., 1995). Stratford & Binkley (1997) have suggested that large number of items were made redundant and there could be improvement to the questionnaire by reducing the items to 18. Patrick et al.(1995) have removed 5 redundant items that are potential . They have suggested that there could be increase in responsiveness by additional of four more additional items which are connected to daily work, sexual function, expression of concern to other people, and the requirement to hold or rub the areas that hurt. Over all the modifications seem to give only minor improvement on original version. A group of international experts have suggested that more of the original version should be used as it is widely used in various countries. A modification was suggested by Underwood et al.(1999) which asked of each item of the RDQ on the no of days the patient was affected in the previous month. This version if not validated and it attempts to incorporate the time people are influenced by the back pain which often varies. But there was not much performance of it apart from the modification of the questionnaire of Von Korff(Underwood e tal. , 1999).

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.
Avail Medical Science Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/9wa2M from medical experts at  affordable prices.
Avail Nursing Assignment Help at http://goo.gl/rr1zM  from medical experts at  affordable
prices.

### Development of Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire – 24 (RM-24 Tool)

The Roland– Morris Disability questionnaire is a measure for health status that is designed to be completed by patients for assessing the physical disability that can be caused due to low back pain. It was originally designed for usage in research by Roland and Morris in the year 1983 for measuring outcomes in clinical trials but at the same time it was also found helpful for patient-monitoring in clinical practice. Initially it was designed for primary care in United Kingdom but at the same time was used in other settings. In 2000, review of the papers relating to the questionnaire was done. The derivation of RMDQ was done from SIP (Sickness Impact Profile) which is a measure of 136-items of health status (Beaton et al., 2000) covering all areas of mental and physical functions. The original authors have selected 24 items from SIP as they are mainly related to the physical functions which are mainly influenced by low back pain.  Every item was tagged with a phrase “because of my back pain” for distinguishing the disability due to back pain from the other disabilities. This is a distinction that the patients generally will able do without any difficulty (Ren, 1998).There is a pain-rating consisting of 6-point scale that the original RMDQ contains in pain thermometer form. But the present authors give recommendation for the SF-36 pain scale (Von Korff et al., 2000). The RMDQ is simple and short to complete and very well taken up by patients. Stratford et al.(1994) found ambiguous or incomplete responses to RMDQ as compared to Oswestry questionnaire.

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.
Avail Medical Science Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/9wa2M from medical experts at  affordable prices.
Avail Nursing Assignment Help at http://goo.gl/rr1zM  from medical experts at  affordable
prices.

### 24 Items of Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire(RM-24)

DISABILITY RATING SCALE FOR LOW BACK PAIN

US English version of the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire from MAPI 2005
The cultural adaptation process described in section 1.2 at the end of the questionnaire.

(Source: US English Version from http://www.rmdq.org/)

When your back hurts, you may find it difficult to do some of the things you normally do.

This list contains some sentences that people have used to describe themselves when they have back pain. When you read them, you may find that some stand out because they describe you today. As you read the list, think of yourself today. When you read a sentence that describes you today, mark the box next to it. If the sentence does not describe you, then leave the space blank and go on to the next one. Remember, only mark the sentence if you are sure that it describes you today.

1.              I stay at home most of the time because of the pain in my back.
2.              I change position frequently to try and make my back comfortable.
3.              I walk more slowly than usual because of the pain in my back.
4.              Because of the pain in my back, I am not doing any of the jobs that I usually do around the house.
5.              Because of the pain in my back, I use a handrail to get upstairs.
6.              Because of the pain in my back, I lie down to rest more often.
7.              Because of the pain in my back, I have to hold on to something to get out of a reclining chair.
8.              Because of the pain in my back, I ask other people to do things for me.
9.              I get dressed more slowly than usual because of the pain in my back.
10.          I only stand up for short periods of time because of the pain in my back.
11.          Because of the pain in my back, I try not to bend or kneel down.
12.          I find it difficult to get out of a chair because of the pain in my back.
13.          My back hurts most of the time.
14.          I find it difficult to turn over in bed because of the pain in my back.
15.          My appetite is not very good because of the pain in my back.
16.          I have trouble putting on my socks (or stockings) because of the pain in my back.
17.          I only walk short distances because of the pain in my back.
18.          I sleep less because of the pain in my back.
19.          Because of the pain in my back, I get dressed with help from someone else.
20.          I sit down for most of the day because of the pain in my back.
21.          I avoid heavy jobs around the house because of the pain in my back.
22.          Because of the pain in my back, I am more irritable and bad tempered with people.
23.          Because of the pain in my back, I go upstairs more slowly than usual.
24.          I stay in bed most of the time because of the pain in my back.

Visitassignmentdesign.com or mail tocontact@assignmentdesign.com for help on  assignments over a wide range of subjects.
Avail Medical Science Assignment Help at  http://goo.gl/9wa2M from medical experts at  affordable prices.
Avail Nursing Assignment Help at http://goo.gl/rr1zM  from medical experts at  affordable
prices.