Running Head: Treatment of paediatric pain
A behavioural family intervention for the treatment of chronic pain in children
We take for granted our ability to recall newly acquired information, such as recalling a telephone number, comprehending a story, or conducting a conversation. Implicit in these tasks is the ability to recall, in order, a sequence of items shortly after they are bought to our attention. However, as adults get older, their ability to retain and recall information deteriorates (Luszcz & Bryan, 1999). In the cognitive ageing literature there is a general agreement that memory functioning declines with age (Park, Lautenschlager, Hedden, Davidson & Smith, 2002; Kausler, 1994), although not all types of memory show equal age deficits.
Age-related decrements in memory are most evident in tasks assessing retention of information over a short period of time, whereas long-term established knowledge appears to be relatively well-preserved (Zacks & Hasher, 2006). Furthermore, it appears that older adults can use long-term knowledge to partially compensate for age-related declines in memory (Park et al. 2002). In spite of the age-related differences in memory, the patterns of memory performance are similar for younger and older adults (Zacks & Hasher, 2006). Understanding the nature of the relationship of this relationship has important practical and theoretical implications for
’s ageing population. Australia
“Although everyone likes to be alone at times, most people thrive on their relationships with others.”(
, Westen & Kowalski, 2009, p.723). Burton
The term indigenous people refers to the original inhabitants of a land or country, who in
most cases now share their traditional homeland with many other people. Indigenous
peoples are found right around the globe. Examples include the Inuit of the
Saami of Scandinavia, the Ainu of
Japan, the Masai of , the Indians of the Kenya
According to Goodwin and Ghaemi (1997 cited in
, Westen and Kowalski,2009),lithium is the choice treatment for bipolar disorder, though antiseizure medications are often effective for manic patients who are non-responsive to lithium. Burton
Abramowitz (2006) examined the effectiveness of cognitive therapy as a treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder. 15 adults, exhibiting symptoms consistent with the DSM-IV criteria for OCD participated in the study. Treatment consisted of one hour weekly individual sessions over a 14 week period. During the sessions psycho-educational information was provided, cognitive distortions were challenged, and strategies were provided regarding relapse prevention. In relation to the effectiveness of cognitive therapy as a treatment for OCD, Park et al.(2005) stated that:
· Cognitive therapy significantly reduced OCD symptoms for each participant.
· Beckian cognitive therapy not only reduced symptoms of OCD, but also reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety.
· Cognitive therapy effectively reduced symptoms for a sub-group of OCD participants (that is, participants that had obsessions without overt compulsions).
However, Park et al.(2005) acknowledged that the study had several limitations. 1st, that the study had a small sample size. 2nd, that the participants in the study had less severe OCD and depression symptoms than participants on other trials. Park et al. (2005) argued that cognitive therapy as a treatment for OCD is potentially as effective as the behavioural treatment of exposure with response prevention (for example, earlier clinical trials have indicated that between nine-fifteen percent of clients with OCD responded to cognitive therapy). However, Abramowitz (2006) noted that the improvement in these trails was minimal.
Abramowitz, J. S. (2006). The psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 407-416.Retrieved December 04, 2010 from
Kausler, D. H. (1994). Learning and memory in normal aging.
: Academic Press. San Diego
Luszcz ,M.A., Bryan ,J.(1999). Toward understanding age-related memory loss in late adulthood. Gerontology; 45, 2-9.
Park, D. C., Lautenschlager, G., Hedden, T., Davidson, N. S.& Smith, A. D. (2002); Models of Visuospatial and Verbal Memory Across the Adult Life Span. Psychology and Aging; 17(2),299-320.
, L & Kowalski, R (2009). Psychology: Australian and Burton edition, New Zealand
:John Wiley & Sons. Brisbane, Australia
Zacks, R. T., & Hasher, L.(2006). Aging and long-term memory: Deficits are not inevitable. In E. Bialystok & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change (pp. 162-177).
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